Quantum Computing is a kind of computing that involves the use of quantum mechanical phenomena such as entanglement, and superposition. Computers that perform quantum computing are different from the regular binary digital electronic computers that are based on transistors.
A quantum computer uses qubits or quantum bits in place of the binary digits (bits) that a digital computer uses. The sequence of qubit which the quantum computer uses is capable of representing a zero, a one, or any quantum superposition of the two qubit states. A pair of qubits can be in any in three qubits in any superposition of 8 states and in quantum of 4 states; this means it can be in an arbitrary superposition of up to 2n different states at the same time.
How Quantum Computing Works
A quantum computer operates based on its qubits using measurement and quantum gates. The measurement here is a series of algorithm with a fixed sequence of quantum logic gates and a problem needed to be solved is encoded by preset values of qubits to solve the problem.
In quantum computing, operations are unitary matrices and they can be effectively rotated depending on the physics of the quantum device. It is possible to reverse quantum computations since the rotations can be undone by rotating backwards.
After the termination of the algorithm, the result can be read off.
Quantum Computing Models
There are different types of quantum computing models with the main distinguishing factor being the manner in which the basic elements are decomposed during computation. There are four major models;
- One-way Quantum Computer: This is a kind of composition that is decomposed into a sequence of one-qubit measurements and it’s applied to a highly entangled cluster state or initial state.
- Quantum Gate Array: Here, the computation is decomposed into a sequence of few qubit quantum gates.
- Topological Quantum Computer: This is a computation that is decomposed into braiding of anyons in a 2D lattice.
- Adiabatic Quantum Computer: This type of computing is based on quantum annealing which involves decomposing computations into slow continuous transformation of an initial Hamiltonian into a final Hamiltonian.
Application of Quantum Computing
Quantum computing today, is being employed by top multinational companies like IBM, Microsoft, and Google among others to solve complex algorithms in order to provide powerful system solution. Here are a few areas where quantum computing is employed on a daily basis;
- Optimization:Quantum computing can be employed to analyze different available option to solving a problem and charting the most appropriate route through which systems can be put to their optimum use for solving daily problems in businesses and industries. It can be to handle innumerable combinations and permutations to analyze and advance system design.
- Financial Services:Financial service providers such as Goldman Sachs, and Bezos all use quantum computing through their first devised quantum computer called D-wave 2000Q with over 2000 qubits and embedded with advanced feature controls. This model can be used for risk management, and complex financial modeling in the financial industry.
- Biomedical Simulations:With the help of quantum computers, molecular structures can be created, simulated, and modeled. Researchers at Harvard University employ the use of a D-wave one quantum to study how some protein fold and they were able to model how protein folding behave to an appreciable degree of accuracy.
- Machine Learning:Quantum computing is used in the analysis of big data to process petabytes of data in order to predict financial markets and consumer behavior.
As we can see quantum computing is solving several problems across different fields from medicine to financial institutions, and robotics among others. This will help to eliminate human errors and get a lot done within the shortest possible time.